Array Data Type Support


Since Pony version 0.7.7 we add support of Array type for PostgreSQL, CockroachDB and SQLite. It implements PostgreSQL’s arrays. JSON type is more flexible, but in some cases Array type might be more efficient.

Declaring an Array attribute

Each array should have a specified type of items that this array can store. Supported types are: int, float and str.

For declaring an Array attribute with Pony you should use one of the IntArray, FloatArray or StrArray types. These types can be imported from pony.orm package:

from pony.orm import *

db = Database()

class Product(db.Entity):
    id = PrimaryKey(int, auto=True)
    name = Required(str)
    stars = Optional(IntArray)
    tags = Optional(StrArray)

db.bind('sqlite', ':memory:')

 with db_session:
     Product(name='Apple MacBook', stars=[0, 2, 0, 5, 10], tags=['Apple', 'Notebook'])


Optional arrays are declared as NOT NULL by default and use empty array as default value. To make it nullable you should pass nullable=True option.


For PostgreSQL if you set index=True Pony will create gin index. For SQLite index will be ignored.

Operations with arrays

Accessing array items

In PonyORM array indexes are zero-based, as in Python. It is possible to use negative indexes to access array from the end. You can also use array slices.

Select specific item of array

select(p.tags[2] for p in Product)[:]  # third element
select(p.tags[-1] for p in Product)[:]  # last element

Using slice

select(p.tags[:5] for p in Product)[:]  # first five elements


Steps are not supported for slices.

Check if item or list of items in or not in array

select(p for p in Product if 'apple' in p.tags)[:]
select(p for p in Product if ['LCD', 'DVD', 'SSD'] in p.tags)[:]

Change array’s items

product =